Stanford has site licenses for lots of Mac software, including the latest version of the Operating System, networking software (MacSamson), SLIP, X, Netscape, and Stanford software for searching local corpora, including the Oxford English Dictionary: Check the ``Site Licensed'' server in the Stanford AppleTalk zone. Although TeX is available for Macs, most Mac users around here use Word for their word processing. There are some very nice IPA fonts that work with Word: Ecological Linguistics (PO Box 15156, Washington DC 20003) and Linguist's Software (PO Box 580, Edmonds WA 98020-0580) are two good sources. There are also fonts and programs which help you draw syntactic trees, matrices, etc.
Outside of the department, there are hundreds of Macs freely available at various on-campus computer clusters.
Outside of the department, there are also more and more Windows PCs becoming available at various on-campus computer clusters.
Aside from email, Unix machines offer some very nice programs for reading Usenet news groups (bulletin boards). People in the department also use Unix for running LaTeX, which is arguably the best system for producing high-quality paper documents. If you wish to study text corpora, you might find Unix useful because of its flexibility, and because the department has a large collection of corpora available from Unix machines.
The Leland System, a distributed network of Unix computers, is Stanford's primary academic computing infrastructure and is administered by Distributed Computing Consulting in Sweet Hall. The Leland System provides free computer accounts, email, web resources and other computing services to the Stanford community. Over 100 Unix workstations from various makers (Sun, DEC, IBM, etc.) are available 24 hours a day in Sweet Hall. In addition, the Unix servers Cardinal, Tree and Junior can be accessed remotely by anyone with a Leland account; most people use Cardinal to read email. At the beginning of each academic quarter, Sweet Hall Consulting offers a series of introductory classes open to all students, faculty and staff, covering topics such as basic Unix commands, email, file editing, the X Windows system, and Usenet newsgroups.
The Linguistics Department also maintains several Unix machines. All of our public Windows PCs also run the Linux variety of Unix. There are several Unix workstations available in the Phonetics Laboratory (in the basement of the Psychology building) for research in phonetics (see Edward Flemming or the Phonetics Lab RA for accounts).
Students and faculty affiliated with CSLI are given accounts on
Turing, the main CSLI computer. People who receive their email on
CSLI computers usually have email addresses ending in
csli.stanford.edu rather than
If you get accounts on more than one computer, remember to have
all email forwarded to the computer you read your email on. On most
Unix systems you just put your email address in a file called
.forward in your home directory, and make that
chmod a+r .forward But on leland
you have to use the command
characteris basically anything that you can type in a single keystroke: `a', `A', `2' and `*' are all characters) long. Longer passwords up to 16 characters are accepted on the leland system, but you will not be able to use certain Mac-based services such as AppleShare. The system will reject passwords that are equal to your account name or some permutation of it (such as writing it backwards), words occurring in a dictionary, and various others, see the DCG page about leland passwords. The best password would be a collection of eight characters containing no discernible patterns. On the other hand, you might find that a random collection of eight characters like
d8Jo-4*vis difficult to remember. If you pick a password that you can't remember, you will have no recourse but to write it down. And then you will need to keep that piece of paper in some convenient spot, which is not safe either. One way to make a password that is memorable but hard to guess is to base it on some text, preferably an obscure one that you do not go around reciting all the time. Build the password from the first letter of each word, finding a way to work in a non-letter. For example, if you use the obscure poem that begins `There was a young man from Nantucket,' your password might be
TwaymfN,. The password is your only line of security, so pick a good one, don't write it down, change it once a year or so, and don't share it with your dearest friend.
If you are using one of the public Macs, make sure the program
MacSamson is running and active. When it is, select from the
session.... This will bring up a window with a field for
Host. Set this to
cardinal (the other fields are not important), then click on the
Open button. You will get a new window
containing a connection to
When you have connected to
cardinal, it will display
At this point you should type your account name, then hit the
Returnkey. You must type in your account name exactly as given to you. In particular you must observe the distinction between lower-case and upper-case letters. If your account name is
wang, it is no use saying that should be capitalized just because that is your last name: Enter it exactly in that form. One of the distinctive properties of Unix is that it always cares about the distinction between upper and lower case.
The computer will then ask:
Type in your password exactly, then hit
Return. You won't see your password on the screen (lest some passer-by see it as well).
If either the account name or the password was incorrect, the machine will reply
and give you a chance to try again. You get three chances.
Once you have successfully logged in, the computer may type something like
It is asking you what kind of terminal you are using. For a Macintosh,
TERM = (vt100)
vt100is an appropriate answer. Type it in, then hit
There is also a chance that you will be shown one or more messages.
Some messages just appear every time you log in. For others, the
computer first asks whether you want to see them. The correct answer
Return. If you
don't understand the message, then it is probably safe to ignore it.
>), at which you can type in a command. When you hit
Return, the computer will execute the command, often typing output back at you. When you get another prompt, the computer is ready for the next command.
The simplest type of command for Unix is a simple word, followed by
Return. For example, if you type
the system will print the current date and time. Henceforth I will refrain from mentioning that you need to hit the
Returnkey after each command.
All you have to do to log out is type
I suggest you do this now, even if you are eager to explore further. This will give you a chance to practice logging in again, and you can try using your new password.
If you are working on a Macintosh, close the session window.
lynxis a program similar to the more familiar
netscape, but it can run on vt100 terminals. A WWW page consists of text (there are also pictures and sounds, but you're not going to get these on a dumb terminal), some of which is specially highlighted to indicate that it is a link to another piece of text. You can hit the space bar to scroll through a page of text; the up and down arrows to select the previous or next link; the right arrow to go where the currently selected link points to; and the left arrow to get back to the place you were at before you followed the most recent link. You can also type
G, then a URL, to go directly to some page on the WWW. This will work for all the URL's mentioned in this guide.
http://www-linguistics/linguistics/will get you to general information about the Linguistics Department. And you should definitely try URL
http://doors/~sr/computing/, which contains links to almost everything you might want to know about computing, including information about local computers. Type
Hat any time to learn more about
Qto exit the program.
cardinalwithout learning a text editor, you don't want to. In order to avoid sending mail with lots of typos and references like ``Forget everything I said two lines above'', you'll need to learn a program that lets you edit what you have already typed. And an editor is a necessity for writing and editing papers: You can save your papers to a file and edit them again later to make the unending stream of revisions that is the lot of the grad student. The editor you will want to use on Unix machines is called
emacs. You'll want to learn it real soon. See URL
http://doors.stanford.edu/~sr/computing/emacs.htmlfor information about
emacs. The Sweet Hall consultants offer introductions to Emacs.
/var/mail/. A mail program lets you treat this as a set of individual messages that can be read, deleted, forwarded, replied to, or saved in different files. It also makes it much easier to send mail messages. But mail program in general all do pretty much the same thing, Unix provides an astonishing variety of them, and you will find partisans here of each of them. You might want to consider
rmail, a very old program whose sole advantage is that it is built into, and therefore fairly well integrated with, emacs. We recommend
elm, which is new enough to have some fancy features, but old enough to have most of its bugs worked out. It is one of the most commonly used mailers on campus. Its interface is clear enough that you can pretty nearly make do by just typing
elmand then playing it by ear. But do look at
http://doors.stanford.edu/~sr/computing/elm.html, and consider taking the Sweet Hall class on the subject; take the Emacs class first.
Your own mail address will be your Leland account name, to which is
firstname.lastname@example.org. This is the form you
should give out whenever people outside the department ask for your
Internet mail address. But you don't really have to type such long
addresses in most cases: You can truncate the parts of the address
that you share with the recipient. So instead of sending mail to
email@example.com, you can send mail to
myfriend@leland. (Similarly, you don't really
have to include the
.stanford.edu part when
accessing local URL's via netscape or lynx.)
We recommend that you use the news reader
There are thousands of groups out there, and so you might want
to consider starting off small; otherwise you may find the wealth of
material either tremendously frustrating, or tremendously addictive.
man page explains all about
man nn. Or if you
are really adventurous and want to get your feet wet immediately, type
Z, then hit the
space bar to step through the manual that is built into the program.
The manual is organized as a series of news articles within a news
group dedicated to the nn manual, so you get to practice even before
you know what you are doing. (Hint: to quit, type
Some students feel that since Word is by all accounts easier to use,
they will start off using Word then switch to LaTeX when the time
comes to submit a really fancy paper somewhere. Keep in mind though
that that day is coming much sooner than you think. Since the two
systems are completely different, learning Word will not prepare you
for learning LaTeX, and so you will have to start learning again from
scratch, precisely at that point when you have no time to learn a
stupid document processing system. See
more information on LaTeX. And by all means cajole your fellow
students for their source files, to use as a pattern or for