A Defense of Contingent Logical Truths


Michael Nelson and Edward N. Zalta


Philosophical Studies, 157/1 (2012): 153–162


A formula is a contingent logical truth when it is true in every model M but, for some model M, false at some world of M. We argue that there are such truths, given the logic of actuality. Our argument turns on defending Tarski's definition of truth and logical truth, extended so as to apply to modal languages with an actuality operator. We argue that this extension is the philosophically proper account of validity. We counter recent arguments to the contrary presented in William Hanson's ‘Actuality, Necessity, and Logical Truth’ (Philosophical Studies, 130 (2006): 437–459).

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